Strategic bomber Tu-160 “White Swan” or Blackjack (baton) in NATO terminology, is a unique aircraft. This is the basis of nuclear power in modern Russia. TU-160 has excellent technical characteristics: it is the most formidable bomber, which can also carry cruise missiles. It is the largest and graceful supersonic aircraft in the world. Designed in 1970-1980-ies in the Tupolev and has a variable sweep wing. In service is 1987.
Tu-160 “White Swan” – video
Tu-160 was the “answer” to the AMSA program ( “development of manned strategic aircraft”) the United States, in which the well-known B-1 Lancer was created. Missile carrier Tu-160 almost all the characteristics far ahead of its main competitors Lancer’ov. The speed of the 160 higher by 1.5 times, the maximum range and combat radius is so much more. A traction motors almost twice as powerful. In this case, no comparison can not stand “invisible» B-2 Spirit, who for the sake of stealth in the sacrifice brought literally everything, including distance, flight stability and load capacity.
Number and value of the TU-160
Each long-range bomber Tu-160 – a piece and quite expensive product, it has unique technical characteristics. Only 35 of these aircraft have been built since its inception, with the intact remains of an order of magnitude less. But they are still a storm of enemies and the real pride of Russia. This aircraft – the only product that got its name. Each of the aircraft built has its own name, they appropriated in honor of Champions ( “Ivan Yarygin”), designers ( “Vitaly Kopylov”), known heroes ( “Ilya Muromets”) and, of course, the pilots ( “Pavel Taran”, “Valery Chkalov ” and others).34 aircraft were built before the collapse of the Soviet Union, with 19 bombers remained in Ukraine, based in Priluki. However, these machines are in use were too expensive, and they just were not needed for a small Ukrainian army. 19 TU-160 of Ukraine proposes to give Russia instead of IL-76 aircraft (1 to 2) or write-off gas debt. But it was unacceptable for Russia. In addition, Ukraine has impacted the United States, which actually forced to destroy 11 TU-160. 8 aircraft were handed over to Russia for gas debt write-off.
As part of the Air Force in 2013 were 16 Tu-160. Russia these aircraft were prohibitively small, but their construction would cost a huge amount. Therefore, it was decided to upgrade the 10 bombers of the existing 16 to Standard Tu-160M. Long-range aviation in 2015 is to get 6 modernized Tu-160. However, under current conditions even the modernization of existing Tu-160 could not solve the problems of war. Therefore, there were plans to build a new missile.In 2015, Kazan decided to consider the possibility of the beginning of production of the new TU-160 KAZa facilities. These plans are developed by the formation of the current international situation. However, it is difficult, but solvable problem. We had lost some of the technology, human resources, but nevertheless, the task is feasible, especially since there is a reserve – two unfinished aircraft. The cost of one missile is about 250 million dollars.
History of the Tu-160
Specifying the design was formulated in 1967 by the Council of Ministers of the USSR. To work attracted design bureaus Myasishcheva and Dry, who offered their versions of a few years. These were the bombers capable of reaching supersonic speed and it overcome air defense systems. Design Tupolev, which had experience in the development of bombers Tu-22 and Tu-95 and supersonic Tu-144, did not participate in the competition. The winner in the end recognized project myasishchev, but the designers did not have time to celebrate victory: the government after some time decided to close the project in myasishchev. All documentation for the M-18 was transferred to the Tupolev, connected to the competition with the “Product-70” (the future Tu-160).
For the future bomber following requirements:
- range at an altitude of 18,000 meters at a speed of 2300-2500 km / h within 13 000 km;
- flight distance from land in 13 thousand kilometers and at an altitude of 18 km at subsonic;
- the goal is to approach the aircraft at subsonic cruising speed, to overcome the enemy’s air defense – at cruising speeds near the ground and in the high-altitude supersonic mode.
- the total mass of the payload shall be 45 tonnes.
The first flight of the prototype (product “70-01”) was carried out on “Ramenskoye” airport in December 1981. The product is “70-01” was piloted by test pilot Boris Veremeev with his crew. The second copy (product “70-02”) is flying, it was used for the static test. Later tests connected the second plane (the product “70-03”). Supersonic bomber Tu-160 was put into production in 1984 at the Kazan aviation plant. In October 1984, the first production car in March 1985, rose in the air – the second serial, in December 1985 – the third, in August 1986 – the fourth.In 1992, Boris Yeltsin decided to suspend lasted for serial production of the 160, if the United States stopped mass production of B-2. by the time it was produced 35 aircraft. KAPO KAPO by 1994 has transferred six bombers the Russian Air Force. They were deployed in the Saratov region, Engels at the airport.
The new missile Tu-160 ( “Alexander Molodchy”) in May 2000, joined the Air Force. Adopt complex Tu-160 took in 2005. In April 2006, it announced the completion of the upgraded engines NK-32 test, created for the TU-160. The new engines are characterized by high reliability and significantly increased resources. In December 2007, it carried out the first flight of the new production aircraft Tu-160. Colonel-General Alexander Zelin, commander in chief of the Air Force, in April 2008, said that in 2008, another Russian bomber entered service with the Air Force. The new aircraft was named “Vitaly Kopylov.” It was planned that the three front-line Tu-160 will be upgraded in 2008.
- Airplane “White Swan” was created with the widespread use of proven solutions already built in KB machines Tu-142MS, Tu-22M and Tu-144, and some components, assemblies and systems of the aircraft passed in unchanged. “Swan” has a structure in which a commonly used composites, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, B-95 and AK-4, titanium alloys, BT-6 and-4.
- Airplane “White Swan” is an integral nizkoplan with variable sweep wing, all-moving fin and stabilizer, tricycle landing gear. Mechanization includes double-slotted wing flaps, slats, for roll control spoilers and used flaperons. Four engine NK-32 are mounted in the lower part of the fuselage in pairs in nacelles. As an auxiliary power unit APU using a TA-12.
- The glider has an integrated circuit. Technologically it is of the six main parts, starting from F-1 to F-6. In the leaky bow in radome mounted radar antenna, for it is unpressurized compartment of the radio equipment. One-piece central portion bomber length 47.368 m includes fuselage, which includes the cabin crew and two gruzootseke. Between them is a fixed part of the wing and center wing caisson-compartment, the tail portion of the fuselage and engine nacelles. The cabin is a single pressurized compartment, where in addition to jobs of the crew, is the electronic equipment of the aircraft.
- Wing bomber variable sweep. Wing with a minimum sweep has a sweep of 57.7 m. The control system and the swivel head in generally the same TU-22M, however, they are translated and amplified. Wing box structure, mainly made of aluminum alloys. Rotary Wing moves from 20 to 65 degrees at the leading edge. By rear edge mounted three-section double-slotted flaps, the leading edge – Quad slats. For roll control spoilers are six section, and flapperony. The internal cavity of the wing is used as fuel tanks.
- By plane stands Automatic-wire-board control system with redundant mechanical and wiring chetyrekratnym redundant. Control – double, fitted handles, steering wheels instead. pitch plane is controlled by the all-moving stabilizer on the course – tselnopovorotnym keel roll – interceptors and flaperons. Navigation system – Dual Channel K-042K.
- “White Swan” – one of the most comfortable aircraft. During the 14-hour flight the pilots it is possible to get up and stretch their legs. Also on board there is a kitchen with cupboards, allowing to warm up food. There is also a toilet, which earlier in the strategic bombers was not. It is around a bathroom during the transfer of military aircraft there was a real war: they did not want to take the car, as the bathrooms design was flawed.
Armament of the Tu-160
Initially, TU-160 was built as a missile – carrier cruise missiles with nuclear warhead long range intended for massed strikes areas. In the future include the expansion and modernization of the nomenclature of ammunition Ammunition capacity, as evidenced by the stencils on the wings gruzotsekov with options Suspension huge range of goods.
On arms TU-160 are X-55SM strategic cruise missiles, which are used to engage stationary targets having predetermined coordinates, their input is before flying missiles bomber in memory. Missiles are placed in groups of six on two launchers drum kits ISU-6-5U in the cargo compartments of the aircraft. The composition of lesions on the arms for short range may be included aeroballistic hypersonic missiles X-15S (12 per ISU).After appropriate conversion bomber can be fitted and svobodnopadayuschie bombs of various calibers (40 000kg) including single cluster bombs, nuclear bombs, sea mines and other weapons. arms Composition bomber there are plans to significantly increase due to the use of high-precision cruise missiles, the latest generation X-101 and X-555, which have increased range and designed to defeat both marine and terrestrial tactical and strategic goals of almost all classes.
The performance characteristics of the Tu-160
Crew: 4 persons
Length: 54.1 m; Wingspan: 55.7 / 50.7 / 35.6 m; Height: 13.1 m; Wing Area: 232 m²
Empty weight: 110 000 kg
Normal takeoff weight of 267 to 600 kg
maximum takeoff weight: 275,000 kg
Engines: 4 × turbofan NK-32
Link maximum 4 × 18,000 kgf
Thrust afterburner 4 × 25,000 kgf
fuel weight: 148,000 kg
Maximum velocity: the mark – 2,200 km / h (M = 1.6); In land – 1,030 km / h (M = 0.84)
cruising speed: 850 km / hr (= 0.69 M)
Maximum distance without refueling 18 950 km
Practical distance without refueling 12 300 km
combat radius: 6000 km
Duration filter: 25 h
practical ceiling: 22 000 m
Rate of climb: 4400 m / min
takeoff / Running distance: 900 m
thrust-to-weight ratio: the maximum takeoff weight, 0.37; during normal takeoff weight-0.36
Photos of Tu-160
Tu-160 top view
Landing of Tu-160
The cockpit of the Tu-160
Place the right navigator of the Tu-160
Place the left navigator of the Tu-160
Armament of the Tu-160
Missile carrier Tu-160 causes a nuclear strike (computer graphics)