“Smerch” system is considered as the most powerful MLRS of the world. Its purpose – to defeat manpower, military equipment, fortifications and command and control points at distances of 20 to 70 km. The system was developed in the early 1980s SSPE “Alloy” in collaboration with more than 20 other companies of the USSR and in 1987 adopted by the Soviet Army. Currently MLRS “Smerch” is in service with the armies of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. Interest in purchasing the system was shown by representatives of India and China.
MLRS 9K58 “Smerch” – video
MRL 9K58 “Twister” includes launcher 9A52-2,300 mm projectiles, fire control system, transport and loading vehicle 9T234-2, training aids and the arsenal complex equipment. The launcher consists of artillery pieces and the chassis chetyrehosnogo MA3-543M-terrain vehicle. Layout – classic. Artillery unit is mounted at the rear wheel chassis are front left driver’s cab, engine-transmission compartment and the cabin crew, in which are mounted radio communications apparatus and the fire control system.
The composition of the artillery unit includes a package of 12 tubular rails, swivel base, lifting, turning and balancing mechanisms, sighting devices, power and accessories. Slides are smooth-tube fitted with screw U-shaped groove for spin projectiles. Mechanisms for targeting via actuators induce package guides in a vertical plane in the range of angles from 0 ° to + 55 °. Horizontal firing angle is 60 ° (30 ° left and right of the machine axis). Between the wheels of the third and fourth bridges mounted hydraulic prop, which posted aft launcher to increase its stability when shooting.
Developed SSPE “Alloy” for MLRS “Smerch” missiles have a unique design that provides accuracy rate 2-3 times higher than in foreign systems. The shells are equipped with a flight management system, a corrective movement trajectory in pitch and yaw. Correction is performed gas-dynamic rudders actuated high pressure gas from the onboard gas generator.
In addition, stabilization of the projectile in flight is due to rotation around its longitudinal axis provided in the provisional promotion of the tubular extension is guided and supported in flight by installing drop stabilizer blades at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the projectile. When firing projectiles dissipating gulp this structure does not exceed 0.21% of the firing range.
300 mm projectiles MRL “Twister” provided with solid-reactive composite propellant, they have a length of 7.5 m and a weight of 800 kg. Weight head portion – 280 kg. It can be one-piece or tape.
There are the following types of projectiles:
■ high-explosive shell with 9M55F single warhead (weight explosive is 92.5 kg, the projectile is used to destroy fortifications, command and control points, the starting positions of missiles, etc.);
■ 9M55K projectile with submunitions containing 72 submunitions fragmentation type 2 kg each (basic assignment projectile – defeat enemy personnel, such shells 10-16 enough for assured destruction motorized infantry company);
■ shell 9M55K1 with cassette warhead containing five homing ammunition of high efficiency “Motive” (gulp four cars, firing such shells is affected tank company in the assembly area).
In recent years, was a complex of “Smerch-M” with the combat vehicle chassis 9A52-2 M A3-543- A1 and freight-loading vehicle 9T234-2 on the same chassis. Developed a family of missiles with a range increased to 90 km by implementing a set of measures similar to those adopted by increasing the range of the modernized system “Grad” up to 35-40 km. primarily related to the improvement of the engine.
By newly developed products, according to Jane’s directory include the following:
■ missile 9M525 with submunitions, completed 72 submunitions weight of 1.75 kg;
■ missile 9M526 with cluster warhead equipped with five combat self-sighting elements with dual-band infrared focal points;
■ 9M527 with missile submunitions equipped with 25 antitank mines weighing 4.8 kg;
■ missile 9M528 815 kg weight with a monoblock high-explosive warhead charge equipped with 95 kg;
■ 9M529 with missile monobloc thermobaric warhead containing 100 kg detonating space-filler;
■ missile 9M530 with penetrating explosive fragmentation warhead;
■ 9M531 with missile warhead with cassette 646 submunitions with armor 120 mm.
Along with the use of missiles systems “Tornado” “and” Twister-M “as weapons against targets in the respective modifications may be used as the F-90 delivery to the exploration project means disposable UAVs developed Kazan NIC” ENIKO and repeatedly exhibited at the air show, beginning with the MAX-93. Unmanned reconnaissance equipment is equipped with a television, a satellite navigation system, the transmission of information by means of television at a distance of 70 km. The unmanned aerial vehicle is provided Pulsejet disclosed and after separation of tandemly arranged wings large elongation. UAV is able to carry out a reconnaissance mission program for up to an hour at speeds up to 145 km / h.
MLRS “Smerch” is firing single rounds or in salvos. Full salvo fighting vehicle produced in 38 seconds. Launch shells provided from the cockpit combat vehicle or using the keypad. Power salvo of three installations MLRS “Smerch” in its effectiveness is equal to “work” two brigades, the armed missile systems 9K79 “Tochka-U”. Volley one machine covers the area of 672 000 m2. High-performance combat use MRL “Twister” is provided through the use of automated fire “Vivarium” control system, developed and manufactured by Tomsk production association “Contour”.
In this system, implemented the following principles:
■ simplicity, compactness and high reliability of the equipment;
■ autonomy and mobility of the Elements;
■ hardware and software compatibility with existing and future ACS fire field artillery;
■ possibility to operate in any ambient conditions and in a wide temperature range (from – 50 ° C to 40 ° C).
Management system “Vivarium” was put into service in the early 90s and is widely used. It is intended for automated and non-automated management team of MLRS weapon system 9K58 “Smerch” and 9K57 “Hurricane”. Its technical facilities enable communications with superiors, subordinates and co-operating authorities solve the problem of planning concentrated fire and fire on the columns, perform data preparation for shooting, collection and analysis of information on the state of artillery units.
The basis of the “Vivarium” control system is based on command and staff vehicles (CSV) at the disposal of the commander and chief of staff of the brigade, as well as their subordinate commanders of battalions (up to three) and batteries (eighteen). Powertrain equipment is placed in the back of a van-K1. 4310 mounted on the chassis of KAMAZ-4310. It includes a means of communication, encrypting data transmission apparatus, the digital computing machine, displays and printers. The main tool used to solve design challenges, is onboard digital computer E-715-1.1. Its performance for the combined mode is 500,000 short transactions to misalignment – 250 000. The amount of RAM – 96, non-volatile memory – 288 KB.
In SHKM all items sold brigade control special mathematical and software that provides:
■ the reception, processing, storage, display, and the formation of messages in formal or not forms;
■ transfer to the higher echelons of management posts about the location and readiness of each unit, making available to the subordinate units and divisions of teams to prepare attacks;
■ protection of stored and processed data from unauthorized access of personnel and officials, as well as the unauthorized use of input-output means.
All calculation tasks invoked to decide on a command entered by the operator in a specialized digital computer using ATSD control panel. The exception is the problem of calculating control data for purposes which are solved automatically when receiving messages on striking indicating the artist who has been called to deliver a volley.
For controlling the process of solving problems in the workplace and commander crank operators mounted display device of the television type. means of communication presented a set of VHF and HF radios that allow for the radio confidently in motion up to 50 km, and in the parking lot – 350 km. Body-van is equipped with antenna devices to ensure reliable operation of the stations. Radiotelephone communication is carried out both from the driver’s cab, and from the operative equipment compartment through T-240D. If necessary, it is possible for a few seconds to automatically switch to a backup link, which virtually eliminates the loss of information during transmission. Exchange data is not provided in the movement.
Complex communication means provides the interface and entering the following channelization means: a satellite station, and relay communication tropospheric, HF and VHF stations average power, the hardware communication nodes, a wired link. Power to all units both on-site and in the motion made by transportable diesel power ED2h8-T400-18PS. In order to ensure normal working conditions for the commander and operators in the crank mounted air conditioners, Equipment for filtering FVUA-10OP-24 and heating installation OB-65G. The car kit includes a primary means of degassing DK-4D, equipment Chemical and Radiation Intelligence, as well as spare parts. It should be noted that all command and staff vehicles, included in the “Vivarium” management system, the same type have the equipment and in case of failure of one of them, its functions can be assigned to any other. This significantly improves system survivability during combat operations.
Operation can be graphically presented on the example of embodiment combat use. At the command post of the brigade commander of the reconnaissance vehicle, as well as from higher authorities received information about the enemy. Computing means the commander and chief of staff of the brigade fire solve the planning problem. At the same time estimated the possibility of fire departments, the availability of ammunition, chosen method of defeats the purpose, determined by the density of fire, developed various solutions to the problem. Then automatically via the communication channels necessary data and orders are sent to the command post of one of the solutions chosen for fire divisions task.
At the command post of battalion commander clarifies information about the enemy (the nature, type and location purposes), solved the problem of survey, prepared by the meteorological bulletins Meteorological data automated intelligence systems. After that, on the basis of operative information about the location and the combat readiness of units subordinate to the commander of the battalion at their command centers via the communication channels necessary information is transmitted. Computing means battery crank handle the information and form a flight mission for six MLRS “Smerch” combat vehicles. According to Russian military experts, the automated control system “Vivarium” significantly increases the combat readiness of units equipped with “Smerch” systems, precision and efficiency of the fire. It is not inferior to similar American ACS “Takfayr”, and on a number of important indicators, such as the time of preparation for combat work and bringing teams exceed it in several times.
For loading the launcher of the MLRS 9K58 “Smerch” includes transportation and loading vehicle 9T234-2 developed on MA3-543A vehicle chassis. This machine has a crane equipment and carries twelve rounds. The process of loading the launcher mechanized and runs for 35 minutes. Used in creating the launcher and transport and charging machine chassis have substantially the same construction and are provided with V-shaped dvenadtsatitsilindrovym diesel engine D12A-525a capacity of 525 hp (At 2000 rev / min). Transmission – hydro, torque converter and planetary three-stage gearbox with automatic switching. Chassis formed on the wheel formula 8×8. Are steered front two pairs of wheels.
Suspension of all wheels – independent, torsion bar. On wheels mounted large-tire air pressure of which is regulated by a centralized system (with a supply of air through the spigot and hub). When driving on the highway the car develops a maximum speed of 60 km / h, they can move on the roads of all categories and beyond, overcoming steep climbs up to 30 ° and fords a depth of 1 meter. Fuel distance is 850 km. In general MRL 9K58 “Twister” has a very high operational efficiency. One salvo this MRL provides defeat the purposes of the square 67 hectares (670 000 square meters!).
The performance characteristics of MLRS 9K58 “Smerch”
The number of guide ………………………………. 12
Crew ……. …………………………………….. 4
Weight in firing position, t …………………………….. 43.7
length ….. ………………………………………….. 12400
width ………………………………………… 3100 …….
height in the stowed position ………………. 3100
Mass projectile kg ………….. ………………………… 800
firing range, km:
maximum …………. ……………………………. 70
minimum ………….. …………………………….. 20
Area defeat m² ………. ………………………… 672 thousand.
The duration of the volley with …………. ……………………. 38
reloading time, m yn ………………………………….. 36
power output. ……………………………………. 525 hp
Maximum speed , km / h ……………… 60
Cruising range, km ………………….. ……………………….. 850
Photo shooting MLRS 9K58 “Smerch”
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