The radicalization of attitudes and the growing influence of the Communist parties on the background of the global struggle against fascism was frightening Vatican. Papal Curia seriously believes that the only National Socialism is able to overcome the Soviet Union and communism. Most of the German Catholic Bishops supported the Nazi state, while it was not compatible with the sentiments of Catholics throughout the world.
Security Police and SD
IV B 1-2187 / 43g
Herr Reichsminister of Foreign Affairs
Berlin W 8
C o n e r g, Remark: agent report on the assessment of the influential circles of the present situation of the Vatican.
C s l k and n as Said report from 3. II. 1943. – IV In I-2187 / 43g.
Sending you a reporting agent, visited the Vatican, please carefully study it.
The report comprises the results of interviews with personalities influential Vatican (close to Pope’s face – Jesuitical pater Leiber, Bishop Hood Nuncio Arata, prelate Kaas et al.).
The statements presented here are important to identify the views of the Vatican circles, and they were made at a time when the Vatican stepped up its political activity and has more than the necessary information. It should be emphasized that the testimony of the same about the Italian agent, based on conversations with the same person during his last stay in Rome in December 1942, turned out to be accurate.
Although Vatican circles in assessing the overall military situation of the opinion that after “inevitable defection of Italy the war in general, both for Germany and Japan should be considered as lost,” but deserve the attention of their views on the possibility of mutual understanding between National Socialism and the Church of as reported also in the reports of other agents that have come in recent years.
A report on the presence of the agent in Rome from 15 to 29 July 1943
Stay in Rome at this time, of course, took place largely under the influence of political changes brought about by full military defeat of Italy in Sicily and accelerated the first massive air raid on Rome 19. 7. 1943. In this regard, issues and problems, not significant effect on the near future of Rome and throughout Italy, moved here in the background. Nevertheless, it was possible to get a fairly complete picture of the overall assessment of the current situation the Vatican most important problems.
I. Estimate of modern military environment
The Vatican believes that now that the expected loss of the unit of Italy, the war in general, both for Germany and Japan lost completely. While all are considered to be working on the enemy power due to a gradual build-up of their overwhelming material superiority, and, consequently, against Germany. Italy after the occupation of the whole of Sicily, apparently, completely ceased to serve as a military factor. Expected landing of troops of enemy powers in the Naples area, Ostia, Civitavecchia, and Livorno. At the same time, South and Central Italy will apparently cut off and occupied without providing any resistance. Badoglio government, which is seen only as a short-term transitional phenomenon, enemy powers to replace the liberal-Masonic ministerial cabinet, possibly under the guidance of the last Prime Minister of the Democratic-leaning Sforza.
There is a clear desire to restore the pre-existing church and state, even to expand it. In the days immediately following the coup, there were persistent rumors that the pope will be appointed by the governor of Rome, in order to prevent further air raids on the city. The idea of restoring the state of the church is supported mainly by British circles headed by Vansigtartom, who have long sought to unite the tops of the Anglican Church of Rome. It is said that Roosevelt after some hesitation and doubt will also support this plan.
Savoy royal house is likely to be removed from power, although it actively supports the English royal house. However, following the Masonic American type, apparently, will be more powerful.
The development of the military situation in Italy is regarded in the Vatican follows.
As a result of the upcoming occupation of Central and Southern Italy, hostile powers spread their terrorist air raids on southern Germany and Austria. In addition to the newly occupied strongholds, they start an offensive in the Balkans, namely in the direction of Romania. It is widely considered to be occupied by the former Yugoslavia, and thence the gang will have this significant support. But first of all within reach of the Anglo-American air force would have been the Romanian oil fields, which would have meant their destruction in the near future.
After the coming of the inevitable withdrawal of the Italians from the Southern Front and Germany, the Balkans will have to expose his other fronts. Ukraine as a result of the military collapse of the East will be lost to Germany at the latest in the spring and summer of 1944, the same time, apparently, will be the extreme point where, because of a number of ground operations on an enormous scale in Norway, Holland, Denmark, southern France and Greece will also very fast broken the resistance of Germany to the west and south. By this time, through the systematic destruction of German industrial areas and the destruction of major population centers in Germany will be brought to a state of total chaos.
The total collapse of Germany would follow, probably no later than the summer of 1944, but many believe that events will develop much faster and may overtake this period. In connection with the further aggravation of the internal situation in the fear of communist speeches the German working class, and as a serious threat, and considering there are 11 million foreign workers. The Vatican no longer believe in the success of a military dictatorship as an interim solution. Here are of the opinion that the general course of events has gone so far that you can not change their course of such “futile”. The case goes to the fact that between the British and the Americans, on the one hand, and Russian, on the other hand, will start the race for supremacy in the occupation of Germany. Assurances of the British ambassador to the Vatican, the data associated with my face (Arata), that the Anglo-American forces will be in Berlin for ten minutes prior to the Russian cause in Rome some doubts.
II. Peaceful meditation, conclusion of peace and the future shape of Europe
Despite all the peace efforts of Pius XII, that he is taking some time with increasing energy, no longer believes in the success of the conclusion of peace, more or less acceptable to Germany and Italy. In addition, every revolution in Germany, even in the form of military dictatorship, would not have changed anything. Any world, whether in Italy, be it Germany, certainly will dictate. Even Leiber, who had previously unlike other stressed that the enemy power will not repeat the mistakes of Versailles, now has to, apparently, to reconsider their views. Vatican ubiquitous fear of further dismemberment of Germany and it is believed that there will be big changes in the political map of Europe:
1) restoration of Poland and the question would go if East Prussia to Russia or Poland, have not yet been resolved. Most of Silesia will be transferred to Poland;
2) Czechoslovakia reconstitution to a significantly enlarged size, wherein Sudetenland will again enter into Czechoslovakia;
3) the union of Austria and Bavaria. Creation of the southern states, which together with Hungary will be shaped by the Danube confederation;
4) re-creation of the former Confederation of the Rhine under the leadership of France;
5) restoration of the former kingdom of Hannover under the direction of any of the members of the English royal house. Hanover also falls to the share of the leading role in the northern state, made up of the remaining fragments of the great Germany.
The international character of Switzerland greatly enhanced. It is envisaged the occupation of Germany, England, and America for a long period of time, the preparations for which have already gone too far. Also extends the requirement for issuance of so-called “war criminals” who are already largely established names, so that they are brought before an international tribunal court. The preparation for this, mainly from the international Jewry, carried out in full. In particular, all the prominent German figures related to their views and activities primarily to the Jewish problem, recorded in America in the files, compiling a considerable effort has been expended.
Particular impact on the world community and world public opinion have reports of allegedly committed atrocities in the East. Everyone who is responsible for this, as has already taken on a precise accounting.
There is a reason to believe that the Vatican is also under pressure from a variety of materials about flood alleged atrocities of the Nazis. In this way, they want to prevent the pope to actively advocate in Germany, and it seems that such a promotion is in no way did not remain fruitless. Itself: of course, that in this case all the large-scale use and apply all kinds of materials on the alleged hostile acts National Socialism with regard to the Church in Germany as well as in the occupied eastern areas.
III. Russian and world Bolshevism
The Vatican now the prevailing view that the world Bolshevism can hardly continue to be able to contain. Even Leiber, who previously did not want to recognize the presence of an acute danger to Germany, and at the same time in Europe, is now admitted that advertise for a long period of time, by Stalin himself bourgeoisification is just a hoax. His supposedly friendly stance against the church as convincingly argue Brust, Arata and all other experts in Russia (Collegium “Russicum”) – a phenomenon of the same order.
As to the further political development of Germany, it is believed that the German Communists are particularly well organized and prepared, that the country is on the threshold of the left of the coup, the outcome of which in the conditions of the alleged prevailing mood of hopelessness among the general population in the rear and at the front of the army can hardly cause any doubts. To delay such developments could have just a quick occupation of Germany by enemy powers, and then only on condition that all still be able to hold back for a while the world communism.
Something similar is happening in France, where the Laval office just sitting on the points of German bayonets. If the military power of Germany will be broken, then France, no one will save us from Communist takeover.
In Spain, Franco’s position because of the growing economic difficulties has become increasingly fragile. Spain and Portugal are also on the eve of the radical Left. So, all leading to the formation of “United Soviet Republics of Europe”.
In England, despite the fact that communism there also has been significantly increased thanks to the common mind of the British workers until there is no acute danger. The radical left movement, however, and are strengthened so that it is impossible to prevent its further development.
Considerably more progress reached communism in America. “The problem of farmers’ prevailed until recently in the American domestic political life, completely receded into the background due to the social standing of the population, which is due to the restructuring of the economic structure. With the growing influence of the large section of society – the working class – in terms of unemployment, which are believed to be significant after the war, to prevent the process of radicalization of workers and the general shift to the left of America will not be possible. Besides stepping up their disintegrating activity of various Jewish and Masonic organizations and groups.
IV. Vatican relationship enemy Powers
Relations between the Vatican, on the one hand, and Britain and America on the other, undoubtedly clouded because of the recent bombing of Rome. I heard from witnesses such details on the perturbation of Pacelli in connection with air raids on Italian cities, particularly in Rome, which do not require any additional explanation. Pius XII was deeply offended because on the basis of his earlier assurances he expected that at least Rome will be spared from the bombing. These circumstances can be explained by the observed since the extraordinary activity of the papacy. Shares of the Roman pope protest as here believe will be welcomed support, not only in England but also in North and South America. The rapid emergence of Pius XII after the first terrorist air raid July 19, 1943, at San Lorenzo was especially noteworthy since there he had his first since the war began public appearance outside the Church of St. Peter. The Pope then in tangible terms, said American and British ambassadors that he will continue, ignoring his personal security, if any air raid immediately goes to a place of destruction.
V. The Vatican and Germany
Summarizing, we can say that the Vatican, as is clear from the above assessment of the overall situation, they are in no way interested in the complete collapse of Germany. Much more dangerous for the church is world Bolshevism, and if he at all anyone can fight back, only one National Socialism. All other forms of government from this point of view has already shown to be ineffective. The cooperation of the Catholic Church to National Socialism (as a lesser evil) is under certain circumstances natural and appropriate, and after the collapse of Italy – the only possible course, because, in principle, the two sides find a number of similar points of view.
Even those in the Vatican who hold opposing views, and until recently, rejected the possibility of any compromise with National Socialism, is now under pressure from the growing threat of world Bolshevism, apparently, forced to speak for a modus vivendi.
If there is a fundamental commitment of the Catholic Church to reach an understanding with National Socialism important role can play the idea that henceforth the party would weaken the rigidity and harshness of their cultural and political program of action and give the church more freedom than ever before. On the other hand, as we are assured, at the Vatican in no way does not endorse or encourage the abuse of power and political missteps some Catholic leaders and generally, recognize the full freedom of action of the episcopate in Germany for the observance of national interests.
In this regard, it should be noted that in the critical days immediately before and after the coup in Rome leading figures such as Brust, Kaas, Schmoll and glass, strongly emphasized the absolute necessity to overcome all differences in order to preserve the ability of the nation to resist. Brust (Jesuit) and Schmoll (Franciscan), in particular, open and defend a true belief, effective national denomination. At this hour, when it is a question of to be or not to be the German people, and hence the entire European culture, it is necessary under all circumstances to put aside the doubts and differences of principle in order to find a way to cooperate with the state church.
Both sides must recognize the imperative of the time “is not to pull out the nails.” We should also add that it is absolutely identical to the ideas expressed by the leading German Catholic figures such as Father Herman (Berlin), Father Hoffman (Berlin), the prelate Banash (ordinariate Berlin), the provincial minister and Father Rem Shmund (Munich). All they showed to a high degree of understanding and a willingness to want to hope that these sentiments are common to most of Catholic Bishops.
VI. Relations between the Vatican and Japan
With regard to Japan, the Vatican were no significant changes. Relations between the parties are quite friendly, and Japan has a growing desire to significantly deepen ties with the Vatican. However, in Rome, in spite of the fundamentally positive stance on this issue, yet there is a certain restraint. This is due to the desire to preserve the extremely important links with China for him that he does not want to jeopardize in any circumstances. In general, there is a belief that the future of the East Asian space if belongs to China, Japan in the case of prolongation of the war lost the fight with the United States, to which will return all previously captured by Japan Pacific. Knowledgeable circles (Arata, Brust) expressed the view that Japan is brewing change in the mood. A growing number of signs indicating that certain circles in Japan are in favor of cooperation with Russia will now take precedence over all other forces. In any case, Rome would like to know whether Japan insists on making peace between the powers of the “axis” and Russia.